New York : Oxford, Social selves: Theories of the social formation of personality. There are even occasional cases of spouses conducting both marriages simultaneously and secretly, each family believing that the bigamist's job requires frequent travel away from home.
Feminists' recognition of the severity and pervasiveness of rape's harms, and of how infrequently victims receive justice, has inspired decades of activism for social and legal change. A raped woman or girl was less valuable as property, and penalties for rape often involved fines or other compensation paid to her husband or father Burgess-Jackson Rape was an act of physical violence designed to stifle Black women's will to resist and to remind them of their servile status ….
In the case of photographic obscene materials, it is plausible that the photographer, the person being photographed, and the consumer of the obscene pictures all consent to the conduct. California: Sage Publications. Criminalization may seek to limit that harm by taking an undesirable option off of the table.
Rape's role in increasing the burden of fear in women's and girls' lives leads Burgess-Jackson to highlight it as an issue consenual sex and owner and subordinate in Boulder distributive justice That is a claim that nonconsenting third parties are harmed by the sex act between the consenting parties.
In some cases, the legal prohibitions on consensual sex crimes were repealed, as was the case with some adultery and fornication statutes at mid century, and later in the century with some sodomy statutes. The marital rape exemption in law, which survived in the U.
The Court considered the issue as early as in light of a now defunct Mormon practice of polygamy. Smith argues that rape was a key method of forcibly instituting patriarchal values in what had been relatively egalitarian Native cultures: In order to colonize a people whose society was not hierarchical, colonizers must first naturalize hierarchy through instituting patriarchy.
The Philosophical Review 73 3 , — Orlando , Fla. Recent scholarship includes some novel approaches to the legal definition of rape. If a law holds X responsibl….