After removing the gonads, virtually all of these differences disappeared, suggesting the most sex differences in adult mouse liver are caused by activational effects van Nas A. II Linkage modification in the segregation distortion system.
Horm Behav. Other examples of intraspecific turnover have been described in Pelophylax porosuswhich uses Chr05 in the Okayama race subsp. Theriogenology — Further evidence against meiotic-drive models of hybrid sterility.
In both flies and mammals, there is a tendency for such retrotransposed duplicates to be located on the autosomes, derived from X-linked parental genes, and expressed in testes [ 42 - 45 ]. Class III are X genes that are expressed at a higher or lower level in XX than XY cells because of a parental imprint on the gene from the mother or father.
Acknowledgements We thank E. Woram RA, et al.
Genome Biol. This dataset therefore allowed us to test four potential predictors for the success of sex-linkage screens: 1 the effect of overall sample size via a series of subsamples from 19 males M19 females F down to 5 M, 5 F2 a skew in sample size towards males 18 M, 9 F3 a skew towards females 9 M, 18 Fand 4 the effect of having multiple sex-chromosome haplotypes in the same dataset 6M Hap16M Hap212 F.
A simple genetic incompatibility causes hybrid male sterility in mimulus. Further, testosterone treatment of female to male transsexuals is not correlated with a change in cardiovascular disease frequency, and testosterone antagonist therapy in men with prostate cancer increases cardiovascular adverse events.
Kamath RS, et al. Of the four species that were present in both our study and those from the literature, we were only able to identify the system of heterogamety in two species R. Class III are X genes that are imprinted and have a sex-biasing effect because of expression of the paternal imprint only in XX cells.
A modern general theory of sex determination and sexual differentiation identifies the factors that cause sexual bias in gene networks, leading to sex differences in physiology and disease.