Sun, S. Horns, F. The genomes of these species were either sequenced for this study or obtained from previous studies 1619 Fig. Preservation of the Y transcriptome in a million-year-old plant sex chromosome system. The various Microbotryum species achieved mating-type locus linkage through different chromosomal rearrangements and have non-recombining regions of different sizes, ages, and gene contents.
Such young evolutionary strata were defined as genomic regions with non-zero divergence between the alleles found in a 1 and a 2 genomes but with lower levels of differentiation than for the genomic region ancestrally located between the PR and HD loci.
Turnover of sex chromosomes induced by sexual conflict. Compensation of dosage-sensitive genes on the chicken Z chromosome. Alternatively, the master sex-determining locus can act in a dose-dependent manner on the X or Z chromosome, where two functional copies are needed for femaleness on the X chromosome or maleness on the Z chromosome.
J Exp Zool. Evolution 68 11 : — This theory was inspired in part by the observation that many male color patterns in guppies are inherited through the patriline, consistent with Y linkage Winge and Winge The implications of these questions go far beyond sex chromosome research per se.
Intraspecific Variation in Sex-Linked Regions. In the past, there wasn't much evidence supporting the idea that X-chromosome inactivation occurred due to dosage compensation.
The medaka, Oryzias latipesand the guppy, Lebistes reticularis. Two Y chromosome-encoded genes determine sex in kiwifruit. Conserved sex chromosomes across adaptively radiated Anolis lizards. How to make a sex chromosome. Dobzhansky and colleagues 22232425 noted that halting recombination can permanently link co-adapted gene complexes recently renamed supergenes within populations.
The organization of genetic varaition for recombination in Drosophila melanogaster.
Muyle, A. Such stretches of within-individual non-zero d S genes were restricted to non-recombining regions in the M. De Mita, S. The PARs and youngest strata displayed little evidence of TE accumulation compared to autosomes and showed low but non-negligible levels of gene loss Fig.
We report an unprecedented case of convergent evolution, with five parallel recombination suppression events independently linking PR and HD mating-type loci in anther-smut fungi and generating megabase-long supergenes beneficial under selfing mating systems. The much lower levels of synonymous divergence d S between the alleles of genes positioned between the PR and HD mating-type loci Fig.