For example, in vertebrates other than mammals, dmrt1 a DM family gene and its paralogs act as the primary sex determination signal in African clawed frog Xenopus laevis chicken Gallus gallus medaka fish Oryzias latipes and possibly the smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis .
However, in some species some sexing methods encounter difficulties in the amplification of long fragments from degraded DNA and in non-specific amplification from sample analysis. Int J Plant Sci : — In a species with highly differentiated i. Nature : 82—
In rodents, for example, many species with unusual sex-determining systems can be found: XY females in some lemming species, X0 females or XX males in vole species, and X0 females and males in some Japanese spiny rats and mole voles . Indeed, many genes may serve as potential targets for sex determination in plants, given that male or female sterility can evolve in various ways .
In some species, sex is under the control of cytoplasmic elements, such as intracellular parasites e. Y degeneration: the loss of genetic information on the non-recombining Y chromosome. Solve the Mouse Utopia problem?
Ashman T-L Constraints on the evolution of males and sexual dimorphism: Field estimates of genetic architecture of reproductive traits in three populations of gynodioecious Fragaria virginiana. Eicher, E. Most basidiomycete fungi, for instance, present two independent MAT loci and are therefore said to be tetrapolar, because a single meiosis can produce cells of four distinct mating types ; each locus can be multiallelic, resulting in up to thousands of different mating types.
Heyner and F. They found that recombination in sex chromosomes depends on the phenotypic sex, but not on the genetic sex.
This region, which was originally autosomal, has been transferred by translocation to the sex chromosomes in ancestral species of Eutheria Graves, a; Glas et al. Bot Rev 59 : — Another recent report discovered that small RNAs derived from a highly abundant noncoding repeat help assemble the dosage compensation complex in the fruit fly D.
Tease, C. Temperature-dependent gonadal differentiation in the alligator.