Specialty categories included allergy and immunology, complementary and alternative medicine including naturopathy and homeopathyanesthesia, audiology, cardiology, chiropractic, dentistry, dermatology, endocrinology, family medicine, general surgery, medical genetics, gastroenterology, hematology, infectious disease, neonatology, nephrology, neurology, neurosurgery, nursing, nutrition, obstetrics and gynecology, subtle sex bias in research in Dallas, ophthalmology, optometry, orthopedic surgery, otolaryngology, palliative medicine, pathology, pharmacy, physician assist, plastic surgery, physical medicine and rehabilitation, podiatry, psychiatry, psychology, physical and occupational therapy, pulmonology, radiology, radiation oncology, rheumatology, social work, speech therapy, sports medicine, urology, and vascular surgery.
Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome measure was the proportion of female first authors. So what subtle forms of sexism do women still face? Too few women authors on research papers in leading journals. Table 2. J Postgrad Med.
Many complex issues surround the appropriate remedy for sex disparities in science, but increasing diversity among senior teaching or supervisory positions within academic institutions may lead to greater representation of women among first authors and the impartial growth of medical knowledge.
Too few women authors on research papers in leading journals. Sponsored Business Content. Multinational teams and diseconomies of scale in collaborative research. PLoS One.
Given the focus of past studies on primary research articles, it remains unclear whether sex disparities stem from the conduct of research or authorship practices. The secondary outcome measures were the proportion of female last authors and female authorship representation among different clinical specialties.
Unlike the remainder of other specialties, cardiothoracic surgery, emergency medicine, orthopedic surgery, and palliative medicine were associated with a lower OR of female first authors but had a higher proportion of female first and last authors relative to the workforce. Men only have to be seen as able to grow into it.
In addition, our cross-sectional analysis only spanned a 2-year interval, which precluded any analyses of temporal trends. While female author underrepresentation was largely associated with the sex composition of clinical specialties, several predominantly male specialties, including oncology, ophthalmology, optometry, and radiation oncology, were not associated with any specific author sex.